2023 Energy Efficiency Standards

Effective January 1, 2023, energy efficiency metrics for residential air conditioners and heat pumps are expressed in terms of Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER2), Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER2), and Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF2).

Old Metrics
�(Appendix M)
New Metrics
(Appendix M1)
Full-load Cooling Efficiency SEER SEER2
Part-load Cooling Efficiency EER EER2
Heating Efficiency HSPF HSPF2

Understanding the New 2023 Energy Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

As part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) ongoing initiative to reduce overall energy consumption in the United States (US),�new federal minimum energy efficiency standards for residential air conditioners and heat pumps are now in effect.

The new Appendix M1 test increases the external static pressure used when testing by up to five times to reflect field conditions more accurately. The cumulative impact of these changes is that Appendix M1 metrics have lower numerical values than Appendix M metrics. Minimally compliant products meeting test requirements under the new metric in the M1 standard are approximately 7% more efficient.

    New minimum energy efficiency standards affect central air conditioners and heat pumps, including single-phase split air conditioners, heat pumps, packaged units, and ductless units, established using a new test procedure in 10 CFR part 430, subpart B, appendix M1 (Appendix M1).

    Appendix M1 Standards are more stringent than previous Appendix M standards. Though new energy efficiency standards only increased by approximately 1 SEER from pre-2023 levels, efficiency requirements have risen by about 7%.

    Source: US Energy Information Administration.

    Light commercial three-phase AC/HP with less than 65k Btus now have regulatory requirements that differ from their single-phase residential counterparts. These requirements vary from state to state based on energy codes for the product adopted from ASHRAE 90.1 and only apply to new construction. 

    The CEE Directory helps consumers and utilities identify products meeting CEE specifications.

    CEE has published CEE Residential Electric HVAC Specifications and is updating the CEE Directory to reflect Appendix M1 standards.

    Standards by Region

    Learn more about standards by region for each product, compliance, and more.

    Residential Heat Pumps

    In 2023, the energy efficiency metrics changed to SEER2 and HSPF2 due to substantial changes in the test procedure.

    Three-Phase, Small CAC/HP

    Compliance with the amended standards established for units with a cooling capacity of less than 65,000 Btu/h is required federally for equipment manufactured on or after January 1, 2025.

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